3 policies

3 policies of ISEE

Diploma Policy

With the advancement and dissemination of information processing and communication technologies, information science has become an extremely important academic field as a basic science that provides a base for scientific methodologies on par with fields, such as mathematics and physics. Furthermore, the results produced by information science have deeply permeated all areas of study, from the humanities to the sciences, as well as ordinary social life, and have had major impacts on societies, cultures, and economies. Meanwhile, the field of electrical and electronic engineering, a large industrial field with a long history, has given birth to and has consistently contributed to the development of the field of information science as a basis of the information industry. It has also produced highly functional, complex, and large electrical and electronic systems, and it is anticipated that there will continue to be developments through close cooperation between this field and information science. In consideration of such a social landscape, the Graduate School of Information Science and Electrical Engineering, with the three departments of Department of Informatics, Department of Advanced Information Technology, and Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, nurtures the next generation of researchers and engineers who have extensive intellectual interests, internationality, and ethics, and who are equipped with advanced specialized knowledge and research and development capabilities in their respective fields.

Curriculum Policy

This school comprises three departments: the Department of Informatics, which studies the characteristics of information, from the perspectives of type and content, that appears in a variety of situations; the Department of Advanced Information Technology, which aims to realize advanced information infrastructure technologies that support an advanced information society through the integration of computer technologies, information and communication technologies, and real-world information technologies; and the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, which provides a systematic understanding of advanced basic knowledge of electrical, electronic, and communication engineering. These three departments cooperate with each other to provide broad-ranging education from the basics of system information science as a new academic field to application. This three-department system allows the school to flexibly adapt to future changes in social needs and educational content, and provides appropriate courses by major to show students exactly what they will study. For example, the Department of Advanced Information Technology (Master's Program) has the Intelligent Information Systems Engineering Course and Social Information Systems Engineering Course, and the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering (Master's Program) has the Information Electronics Course and Electrical Engineering Course. In the field of information science and electrical engineering in which these three departments collaborate, the school cultivates researchers who possess the capability to discover new areas and make advancements and open-minded and advanced specialized professionals. Also, the school strives to nurture engineers and researchers who are orientated toward making proposals and searching for problems, and who are full of internationality, creativity, and autonomy. In addition, the doors of the school are wide open, as it provides academic programs to students from both inside and outside the university.

Admission Policy

The Graduate School of Information Science and Electrical Engineering is seeking students who have a profound understanding of the principles of the school and who have a strong will and basic academic skills that enable them to autonomously conduct research according to these principles. Each department has its own Admission Policy in accordance with its Diploma Policy, and each has prepared the appropriate system for selecting students. For example, in the Master's Program, there are several departments. Special examinations are prepared in addition to the standard examination, as well as a special selection examination for foreign students and special selection examination for third-year students at the school (academic acceleration system) in all departments. Details of the selection system are published in the Admission Policy of each department and on the department homepages.

Department of Informatics

Diploma Policy

The Department of Informatics supports the foundation for information and communication technologies into the future and systematically nurtures researchers, engineers, and educators capable of revealing new visions in informatics, by systematically conducting educational research into informatics, a new basic science that studies the characteristics of various types of information phenomena pertaining to nature, society, and humans, from the perspectives of type and content.

 

Master's Program

  • Educational goals
    •Systematically educate students about information, which is a source of the intelligence and sensibility of human beings and that fulfills a central role in both natural and artificial systems.
    •Nurture researchers and engineers who are capable of making extensive contributions to an information society, with a grasp of the sciences, not just physical sciences and engineering but also the humanities, from the perspective of informatics.
  • Expectations of students who have completed this program:
    •Acquire advanced and specialized skills having a basis in the fields of mathematical informatics, intelligence science, and computational science, and contribute to the development of an information society.
    •Conduct research based on the academic frameworks of informatics and fulfill a critical role in the research fields thereof.
  • Goals to accomplish
    A: Knowledge/understanding
    •Acquire the basic knowledge of computation theory, graph theory, algorithms, network engineering, information theory, information security, cognitive science, symbolic logic, data mining, machine learning, and game theory, and have an understanding of a broad range of research fields in informatics.
    B: Skills
    B-1 Specialized skills
    •Acquire specialized basic knowledge in areas, such as advanced data structures, computational learning, on-line forecasting, human interfaces, pattern discovery, automated reasoning, natural language processing, nonlinear systems, and computer graphics, and be able to practically utilize that knowledge in applications.
    B-2 General skills
    •Be able to: construct and analyze information models by employing mathematical methods; scientifically explain the characteristics of human senses, cognition, and behavior; provide support for human thought processes by using methods of information science; and develop high-performance computing.
    C: Attitude/intentionality
    •Have the attitude for autonomously discovering, formulating, and solving programs, while constantly being aware of applications, and tackle research into the basic theories.

Doctoral Program

  • Educational goals 
    •Provide students with the knowledge and capability to lead informatics, as visionary scientists of informatics.
    •Nurture engineers of core ICT technologies, who are pioneers of technologies rooted in the principles of information.
  • Expectations of students who have completed this program:
    •Learn about cutting-edge core technologies in ICT, which have a basis in the fields of mathematical informatics, intelligence science, and computational science, and promote the development of an information society.
    •Conduct research based on the academic frameworks of informatics and fulfill a leading role in the research fields thereof.
  • Goals to accomplish
    A: Knowledge/understanding
    •Learn about the latest research concerning discovery science, machine learning, cognitive ethology, cognitive processors, information theory, information systems, and computer science, and understand the perspectives and methodologies of informatics.
    B: Skills
    B-1 Specialized skills
    •Acquire advanced and specialized knowledge and skills concerning advanced data structures, computational learning, on-line forecasting, human interfaces, pattern discovery, automated reasoning, natural language processing, nonlinear systems, and computer graphics, and be able to practically utilize that knowledge.
    B-2 General skills
    •Cultivate the ability to communicate in English, the ability to conduct presentations through educational research, and the ability to manage projects, and be able to autonomously apply research to solving specific problems in an information society.
    C: Attitude/intentionality
    •Aim to contribute to the future development of an information society and construct new frameworks in informatics based on advanced specialized knowledge and skills in informatics.

Curriculum Policy

The Department of Informatics, with the goal of developing new viewpoints and methodologies in informatics and constructing a base for expansion, conducts educational research concerning construction and analysis of mathematical models of information phenomena, scientific investigation of human intellect and behavior, support infrastructure technologies for human intellection, parallel algorithms, high-precision computation, and the like, with the three pillars of mathematical informatics, intelligence science, and computational science.
The Master's Program is arranged to allow students to systematically learn the basics of informatics for each core subject and be able to learn, with great interest, about the world’s latest research trends in each field of informatics in advanced courses. Moreover, it is arranged so as to allow students to acquire a broad array of knowledge for handling the variety of needs in society by requiring that students acquire credits in courses in the other two departments of the Graduate School of Information Science and Electrical Engineering and in subjects in schools, such as the Faculty of Mathematics and Graduate School of Systems Life Sciences.
In the Doctoral Program, students acquire cutting-edge research and development capabilities in informatics, and gain the ability to make new developments by acquiring advanced fundamental capabilities and broad perspectives through internships at companies and the university, through cooperative research, and the like.

Admission Policy

The Department of Informatics is seeking students who have a profound understanding of the principles of the department and who are capable of conducting research according to these principles. In particular, we would like to admit the following kinds of students.

  • Students who tackle research into basic theories with a constant awareness of applications.
  • Students who can conduct practical research based on basic theories.
  • Students who have the courage to take on the challenges of new fields.
  • Tenacious students who will advance research.

Department of Advanced Information Technology

Diploma Policy

The Department of Advanced Information Technology Master's Program has the Intelligent Information Systems Engineering Course and the Social Information Systems Engineering Course.
The Intelligent Information Systems Engineering Course nurtures researchers and engineers with an international perspective, who will develop cutting-edge technologies for an advanced information society, by providing them with specialized knowledge of advanced hardware, advanced software, information technologies, and real-world information processing technologies, as fundamentals of computer technologies.
Incidentally, information technology, which is the basis of an advanced information society, is advancing at a tremendous speed and major revolutions are being made in social life and in different industrial fields, but the lack of excellent information engineers who are to be responsible for the next generation has become a major problem. In order to deal with such a problem, the Social Information Systems Engineering Course nurtures potential global leaders who will acquire advanced techniques while having a clear understanding of the social positioning of information and communication technologies and who possess both fundamental knowledge and a high sense of ethics, in order to respond to such social demands.
The Doctoral Program of this department nurtures advanced ICT architects who will lead the design and development of cutting-edge information processors, which will support a large-scale and complex advanced information society, and ICT frontier researchers who are capable of developing new research fields in order to further develop such an advanced information society. For the former, the program enhances their research and development capabilities for cutting-edge technologies in advanced information technology and their practical skills through internships in industrial circles, joint research, and the like. For the latter, the program nurtures advanced fundamental capabilities, a broad perspective, and the ability to develop new fields, by implementing project-based learning and academic internships at research and educational institutions inside and outside Japan.

Master's Program
Intelligent Information Systems Engineering Course

  • Educational goals
    •Teach students specialized knowledge about computer technologies, information and communication technologies, and real-world information processing technologies.
    •Nurture researchers and advanced engineers who have a broad perspective spanning from information infrastructure technologies to the related fields, by implementing an educational system through which students systematically learn about computer technologies, information and communication technologies, and real-world information processing technologies.
  • Expectations of students who have completed this program:
    •Learn about computer technologies, information and communication technologies, and real-world information processing technologies, and acquire advanced and specialized skills in the application technologies thereof.
    •Pursue a career in computer technology, information and communication technology, or real-world information processing technology, or in a field related to the research and development of the application technologies thereof.
  • Goals to accomplish
    A: Knowledge/understanding
    •Be able to utilize basic knowledge in areas, such as mathematics, information theory, computer architecture, system software, information networks, software engineering, and information security, to design and perform research and development for systems related to information infrastructure.
    B: Skills
    B-1 Specialized skills
    •Acquire specialist fundamental knowledge in areas, such as hardware design, communication systems, software engineering, embedded systems, image analysis, and human interfaces, and be able to design and develop new technologies.
    B-2 General skills
    •Have the ability to set research topics, the ability to analyze problems, and the ability to draft research plans.
    C: Attitude/intentionality
    •Have the ability to autonomously discover and construct the direction to take in order to achieve established goals.

 

Social Information Systems Engineering Course

  • Educational goals
    •Provide students with the entrepreneurial spirit for developing the next-generation information society and with design capabilities, with the fundamentals of information science and information engineering at the core.
    •Nurture advanced engineers and researchers who will be the foundation of an advanced information society, with a specialty in computer technology, information and communication technology, and real-world information processing technology, and the technologies that are the fusions of these areas.
  • Expectations of students who have completed this program:
    •Acquire specialist techniques that allow them to design high-added-value social systems from the perspective of the utilization of information technologies.
    •Pursue a career and fulfill a critical role in an area related to technological development, based on the systems of information science and information engineering.
  • Goals to accomplish
    A: Knowledge/understanding
    •Be able to develop practical systems by utilizing basic knowledge in areas, such as mathematics, information theory, computer architecture, system software, information networks, software engineering, and information security.
    B: Skills
    B-1 Specialized skills
    •Acquire specialized basic knowledge in areas, such as programming, system development techniques, and project management, and be able to practically utilize that knowledge in applications.
    B-2 General skills
    •Have an entrepreneurial spirit for developing the next-generation information society, the ability to create the social value of information and communication technologies, team strength, and the ability for international leadership and communication.
    C: Attitude/intentionality
    •Have the ability to discover social problems, the ability to solve problems by utilizing information and communication technologies, and the ability to conduct oneself independently and autonomously in order to solve problems.


Doctoral Program

  • Educational goals
    •Acquire specialized knowledge concerning computer technologies, information and communication technologies, and real-world information processing technologies.
    •Nurture researchers and advanced engineers who have a broad perspective spanning from information infrastructure technologies to the related fields, by implementing an educational system through which students systematically learn about computer technologies, information and communication technologies, and real-world information processing.
  • Expectations of students who have completed this program:
    •Acquire a broad perspective and advanced specialist skills in computer technology, information and communication technology, and real-world information processing technology, and in the application technologies thereof.
    •Pursue a career in computer technology, information and communication technology, real-world information processing technology, or in a field related to the research and development of the application technologies thereof, and take initiative and fulfill a critical role therein.
  • Goals to accomplish
    A: Knowledge/understanding
    •Be able to fulfill a leading role in the design and the research and development for systems related to information infrastructure, through intellectual property techniques, teaching practice, and cutting-edge project management techniques.
    B: Skills
    B-1 Specialized skills
    •Be able to learn about specialized fundamental technologies concerning areas, such as cutting-edge LSI, system development methodologies, intelligent machines, and communication media, and fulfill a leading in the creation and development of a new technology.
    B-2 General skills
    •Have the ability to perform project management, the ability to draft research plans, techniques for making presentations in English, and the like.
    C: Attitude/intentionality
    •Have the ability to autonomously discover and construct the direction to take in order to achieve established goals.

Curriculum Policy

The curriculum of the Intelligent Information Systems Engineering Course has set the number of credits to the international standard in order to assure the quality of education. The core courses (basic subjects) are designed with new courses that incorporate the conventional lecture style with experiments and practical training, which allows students to master the practical knowledge related to intellectual information systems. Also, it enables students to learn the logical basics of information and gain an information scientific understanding of life phenomena by allowing them to take, as adjunct courses, courses from the Department of Informatics, Graduate School of Systems Life Sciences, etc., and it enables students to work to enhance their knowledge needed for handling the various needs of society.
The curriculum of the Social Information Systems Engineering Course has set the number of credits to the international standard in order to assure the quality of education, and conducts a cutting-edge, practical educational program. Specifically, it lets students experience the necessity of learning about the technologies needed in the real world and the basic body of knowledge thereof, through practical lectures and practical training, such as through PBL (Project Based Learning) via industry-academia collaboration. This cultivates the ability to autonomously think, learn, and act, which is essential for leaders in the real world.
The three characteristics of the curriculum of the Doctoral Program are as follows.

  • The program aims to enhance fundamental abilities and practical abilities through internships in industrial circles and at research institutes inside and outside Japan and through project-based learning.
  • The program has established a guidance system operated by multiple instructors from a broader perspective, and it conducts management of student progress throughout multiple checkpoints.
  • The program evaluates student achievements by means of an advisory board that is made up of specialists from inside and outside the university, and it provides diversified support.

Admission Policy

The Intelligent Information Systems Engineering Course welcomes students who are strong in basic mathematics, information science, and computer engineering, and who have the following ambitions.

  • Students who have the ambition to contribute to the creation of an advanced information society through research and development of cutting-edge technologies
  • Students who aim to acquire the basic theories and specialized knowledge in areas, such as mathematics
  • Students who will go beyond understanding theory and will proactively pursue learning about technologies in a practical manner

The Social Information Systems Engineering Course welcomes students who are strong in basic computer technologies and computer science, and who have the following ambitions.

  • Students who have a sense of safety, security, and well-being, and who have strong spirit concerning the construction of the new social information systems of the future
  • Students who have strong ambitions concerning ICT (Information and Communication Technology)
  • Students who have the motivation to think and act autonomously

Furthermore, the Doctoral Program welcomes students who are strong in the basic theories of mathematics, etc. and the specialized knowledge of their respective fields, and who have the following ambitions.

  • Students who aspire to be engineers and researchers who are orientated toward making proposals and searching for problems, and who are full of internationality, creativity, and autonomy
  • Students who aspire to satisfy the immense requirements of society and industrial circles and be leaders responsible for the advanced information society of the future
  • Students who proactively participate in industry-academic exchange and exchange among researchers, and who aspire to dramatically improve their own research and development capabilities

Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Diploma Policy

The goal of the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering is to allow students to systematically understand advanced basic knowledge of electrical engineering, electronics, and communication technologies, and to nurture engineers and researchers who can work to solve complex social problems by utilizing inventiveness from advanced specialized knowledge, in the fields of information communications and electrical systems, in order to create new social value for the future. For example, it nurtures human resources, such as those capable of creating low-energy-consumption systems for preventing global warming, information systems and communication technologies capable of handling an explosion of information, and social infrastructure systems that are both safe and secure with a double-sided relationship with accessibility resulting from globalization.

Master's Program
Electrical Engineering Course

  • Educational goals
    •Systematically educate students about cutting-edge electrical and electronic systems and measurement control systems, and the applied technologies thereof.
    •Nurture, through research and development of the technologies of these electrical systems, advanced specialized engineers who contribute to the development of the related industries, as well as researchers and engineers who can lead the creation of next-generation electrical systems and the development of new application fields.
  • Expectations of students who have completed this program:
    •Acquire advanced specialized skills in electrical and electronic system engineering and measurement control system engineering, and in the application technologies thereof.
    •Pursue a career in research based on the systems of electrical and electronic system engineering and measurement control system engineering, and fulfill a critical role therein.
  • Goals to accomplish
    A: Knowledge/understanding
    •Have basic knowledge concerning system information science, and acquire core basic knowledge in areas, such as electric energy engineering, electromagnetic energy engineering, measurement control engineering, superconductor engineering, and power electronics. Also, have an understanding of extensive and advanced research fields concerning electronics systems.
    B: Skills
    B-1 Specialized skills
    •Be able to apply cutting-edge technologies both theoretically and experimentally with regards to optimal design techniques for high-functionality electromagnetic systems and social systems, measurement control technologies, technologies for generating, transporting, converting, and storing electrical energy, superconductor technologies, and the like.
    B-2 General skills
    •Acquire the creative ability to create cutting-edge electrical and electronic systems and measurement and controls systems, and the application technologies thereof. Also, in order to create new products that have social value by utilizing these electrical system technologies, acquire speaking and presentation skills, the ability to plan and implement new technologies, and the ability to communicate internationally. Additionally, acquire the fundamental abilities that can cover the expansion to areas related to one’s field of specialization.
    C: Attitude/intentionality
    •Have the attitude for utilizing knowledge and capabilities for creating social value, and independently and autonomously tackle research into the basic technologies and theories.


Information Electronics Course

  • Educational goals
    •Systematically educate students about cutting-edge electronic devices and system integration technologies, and the application technologies thereof, which will further advance information and communication technologies.
    •Nurture, through research and development of cutting-edge electronic devices, advanced specialized engineers who contribute to the development of the related industries, as well as researchers and engineers who can lead the creation of next-generation electrical systems and the development of new application fields.
  • Expectations of students who have completed this program:
    •Acquire advanced specialized skills in electronic devices, system integration technologies, and information and communication technologies, and in the application technologies thereof.
    •Pursue a career in research based on the systems of information and communication technology and electronic engineering, and fulfill a critical role therein.
  • Goals to accomplish
    A: Knowledge/understanding
    •Have basic knowledge concerning system information science, and acquire core basic knowledge in areas, such as the basic physical properties of materials for electric and electronic components, design and process technologies of semiconductor integrated circuits, information transmission technologies, such as wireless technologies, information display systemization technologies, and electrical/optical integrated systems. Also, have an understanding of extensive and advanced research fields concerning electronic device engineering and integrated electronic systems.
    B: Skills
    B-1 Specialized skills
    •Be able to apply cutting-edge technologies both theoretically and experimentally with regards to control of electronic materials within the nanometer range and the application to the cutting-edge devices thereof, nanotechnologies for creating devices, device integration technologies of devices that are the fundamental elements of information and communication systems and that have detection, storage, arithmetic, communication, and display functions, and the like.
    B-2 General skills
    •Acquire the creative ability to create innovative and highly functional electronic devices that are the driving forces behind the development of an information and communication society. Also, in order to create new products that have social value by utilizing the functions of electronic devices represented by integrated circuits (LSI), acquire speaking and presentation skills, the ability to plan and implement new technologies, and the ability to communicate internationally. Additionally, acquire the fundamental abilities that can cover the expansion to areas related to one’s field of specialization.
    C: Attitude/intentionality
    •Have the attitude for utilizing knowledge and capabilities for creating social value, and independently and autonomously tackle research into the basic technologies and theories.


Doctoral Program

  • Educational goals
    •Systematically provide students with an understanding of advanced knowledge of cutting-edge electrical, electronic, and communication engineering, and systematically educate them about the application technologies thereof.
    •Nurture engineers and researchers who can work to solve complex problems by utilizing inventiveness from advanced specialized knowledge, in the fields of information and communications and electrical and electronic systems, in order to create new social value for the future.
  • Expectations of students who have completed this program:
    •Acquire advanced and specialized skills at a global level in cutting-edge electrical, electronic, and communication engineering, and in the application technologies thereof.
    •Pursue a career in research based on the systems of information and communication technology and electronic engineering, and fulfill a critical and leading role therein.
  • Goals to accomplish
    A: Knowledge/understanding
    •Have broad and cutting-edge knowledge concerning system information science, and learn about project management, intellectual property, international communication techniques, and teaching techniques. Also, acquire core cutting-edge knowledge in areas, such as electrical and electronic systems, measurement control systems, electric energy, power electronics, properties of electrical and electronic materials, electronic devices, integrated systems, and information and communications.
    B: Skills
    B-1 Specialized skills
    •Be able to apply cutting-edge technologies both theoretically and experimentally with regards to optimal design techniques for control of electronic materials within the nanometer range and the application to the cutting-edge devices thereof, nanotechnologies for creating devices, device integration technologies of devices that are the fundamental elements of information and communication systems and that have detection, storage, arithmetic, communication, and display functions, optimal design techniques for electromagnetic systems and social systems, measurement control technologies, measurement control technologies, technologies for generating, transporting, converting, and storing electrical energy, superconductor technologies, and the like.
    B-2 General skills
    •Acquire the creative ability to create innovative and highly functional electronic devices, electrical and electronic systems, and measurement control systems, and the application technologies thereof. Also, in order to create new products that have social value by utilizing the technologies of these electrical and electronic systems, have speaking and presentation skills, the ability to plan and implement new technologies, and the ability to communicate internationally. Additionally, have the fundamental abilities that can cover the expansion to areas related to one’s field of specialization.
    C: Attitude/intentionality
    •Have the attitude for utilizing knowledge and capabilities for creating social value, and independently and autonomously tackle research into the basic technologies and theories.

Curriculum Policy

This department has the following two courses to allow students to become the types of professionals mentioned above.

Electrical Engineering Course
The department has arranged core courses and advanced courses that allow students to systematically learn about the fundamentals and cutting-edge aspects of electrical and electronic component technologies that can be used with high energy efficiency and of energy control systems. Also, students can practically learn about research and development for systemization based on new concepts for dealing with increases in complexity and functionality of social infrastructure through the accompanying lectures and research courses. This systematically nurtures researchers and engineers who will support a broad range of industrial fields and social infrastructure and who will be in charge of the development of an advanced energy society that is in harmony with the environment.

 

Information Electronics Course
The department has arranged core courses and advanced courses that allow students to systematically learn about the fundamentals and cutting-edge aspects of the materials science and electronic physics of electronic devices that are the fundamental elements of information systems and that perform detection, storage, processing, communication, and display of information, and about communication technology and integration engineering. Also, the department has arranged lectures and research courses to allow students to practically learn about the creation of the cutting-edge electronic devices that will further advance information and communication technologies and the research and development of the application technologies thereof. This systematically nurtures researchers and engineers who can lead the creation of next-generation information electronics and development of new application fields.

The other characteristics of the curriculum are as follows, and they are common to both courses.

  • The number of credits is set to the international standard in order to assure quality that can withstand international educational evaluations.
  • The curriculum deepens the understanding of the fundamental courses of the main department in core courses through the incorporation of both lectures and practical training, requires students to take, through adjunct courses, other courses of this department or basic courses of other departments, and provides students with balanced expertise that allows them to function in inter-disciplinary areas.
  • Establishes basic courses common to all departments with the aim to cultivate broad perspectives and the basic knowledge needed by leaders.
  • For the Doctoral Program in particular, a multifaceted and individual guidance system by means of an advisory board that is made up of multiple instructors, specialists from industrial circles, and members from other universities inside and outside Japan is established, with a focus on cultivating human resources who can utilize their knowledge to create new social value.

Admission Policy

This department is seeking the following applicants. Selection of applicants is determined through the standard examination, special examinations, and special selection examination for foreign students, by course.

  • Applicants who have the basic academic skills in any of the fields of electricity, electronics, or information.
  • Applicants who have the autonomy to discover problems on their own and set the themes for solving these problems, and learn while aiming to achieve profound breakthroughs with respect to these problems.
  • Applicants who have unyielding efforts to acquire fundamental abilities and who have the will and capability to proactively advance their learning.
  • Applicants who have the ambition to be a researcher or engineer full of the spirit to take on challenges in opening and developing new areas, and who have defined ethical perspectives as technological graduates and postgraduate students.